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East Asian Key References


Key references to research on effects of class size differences and small class teaching in the east (December 2015)


Chen, L. M., & Sheu, T. M. (2003). On class-size reduction policy for Taiwan’s compulsory education, Education Policy Forum, 6(2): 1-20. [in Chinese]


Dong, B. F. (2001). A broad view of “Small Class Education.  Shanghai Education, 8 29-30, Available: [2001]


Galton, M. and Pell, T (2012a). Do class size reductions make a difference to classroom practice? The case of Hong Kong primary schools.  International Journal of Educational Research. 53, 22-31.


Galton, M., & Pell, T (2012b). Longitudinal effects of class size reductions on attainment: Results from Hong Kong primary classrooms. International Journal of Educational Research. 53, 360-369.


Galton, M., Lai, K. C., & Chan, K. W. (2015). Learning to teach small classes: Lessons from East Asia. London: Routledge.


Harfitt, G.J. (2012). Class Size and Language Learning in Hong Kong: The Students’ Perspective, Educational Research, 54(3), 331-342.


Harfitt, G.J. (2012). How class size reduction mediates secondary students’ learning: Hearing the pupil voice. Asia Pacific Education Review, 13(2), 299-310.


Harfitt, G.J. (2012). An examination of teachers’ perceptions and practice when teaching large and reduced-size classes: Do teachers really teach them in the same way? Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(1), 132-140.


Harfitt, G. J. (2013). Why ‘small’ can be better: an exploration of the relationships between class size and pedagogical practices, Research Papers in Education, 28(3), 330-345.


Harfitt, G.J. (2014). Brokering dialogue between secondary students and teachers to co-construct appropriate pedagogy in reduced-size classes, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice. 20(2), 212-228.


Harfitt, G.J. (2015). Class size reduction: Key insights from secondary school classrooms, Singapore: Springer Publications.


Harfitt, G.J., & Tsui, A.B.M., (2015). An examination of class size reduction on teaching and learning processes: a theoretical perspective. British Educational Research Journal, 41(5), 845-865.


Ip, K. Y., & Lai, K. C. (2005). The formation of the policy of reducing class sizes and its implementation in South Korea. Global Education (Monthly), 34(8), 53-58. [in Chinese]


Jang, S. (2003). Financial, economic and educational analysis of class size policy. (Report No.RR 2003-7). Seoul: Korean Educational Development Institute. [In Korean]


Lai, K.C., & Ip, K.Y. (2007). Seeing large from small: Case studies of small class teaching. Hong Kong: Step Forward.  [in Chinese]


Lai, K. C., & Che, M. W. M. (2011). Class size reduction at the secondary school level – A review of literature. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Education.


Lai, K. C., Chan, K. W., & Lee, C. K. J. (2014).  Small class teaching: Seizing the opportunities.  In Marsh, C. & Lee, C. K. J. (Eds.), Asia's high performing education systems: The case of Hong Kong (pp. 132-150). New York: Routledge.


Lai, K. C., & Yan, B. Y. (2015). (Eds.), Thoughts and actions in small class teaching: Theories and practice of small class teaching in Hong Kong and Nanjing. Nanjing: Nanjing Normal University Press. [in Chinese]


Lai, K. C. (2015).  The theoretical foundation and challenges of teachers’ professional development in small class teaching in Hong Kong.  In Lai, K. C., & Yan, B.  Y. (Eds.).  Theory and Practice of Small Class Teaching in Hong Kong and Nanjing, Nanjing: Nanjing Normal University Press.  [in Chinese]


Lau, G., & Lai, K. C. (2013).  Fostering moral education in small class environments in kindergartens: Promises and challenges, Journal of Quality School Education, 8, 25-40. [in Chinese]


Mao, F. (2004) Small class education, Shanghai: Shanghai Education Press. [in Chinese



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